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Vampires in Past and Present - Part II: Research and Theories

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Throughout history and even present times, the Vampire phenomenon has been researched by different people. The three most important and famous of them have been the French Benedictine Dom Antoine Augustin Calmet, the English Catholic and Occultist Montague Summers and the American paranormal investigator and vampirologist Stephen Kaplan.

Throughout history and even present times, the Vampire phenomenon has been researched by different people. The three most important and famous of them have been the French Benedictine Dom Antoine Augustin Calmet, the English Catholic and Occultist Montague Summers and the American paranormal investigator and vampirologist Stephen Kaplan.

 

The Benectine Calmet (1672-1757) taught philosophy and theology at the abbaye at Moyen-Moutier, France. He is most remembered for his only great work: Dissertations sur les apparitions, des anges, des démons et des esprits, et sur les revenants et vampires de Hongrie, de Boheme, de Moravie et de Silésie (Dissertations about apparitions, angels, demons and spirits, and about the undead and vampires in Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia), edited in Paris, 1746. It is considered as a overview of supernatural/occult events across Europe. Vampirism did not exist in France, so Calmet was impressed by the incidents that happened in Eastern Europe. Calmet defined a vampire as a person that was dead, buried and then returned to the world of the living to trouble them sucking their blood and cause also their death. A vampire could only be killed either by decapitation or by driving a stake through his heart. After all he condemned the hysteria that followed the vampirism cases and seconded the Sorbonne’s condemnation of the mutilation of exhumed bodies.

 

Alphonsus Joseph-Mary Augustus Montague Summers was born in Clifton near Bristol, England in 1880. He studied theology. During his researches into witchcraft and the occult, he maintained a friendship with Aleister Crowley. Summers dedicated 30 of his years to the studies of witchcraft and demonology. His most famous work was the English translation of the “Malleus Maleficarum”, a guide for the persecution, torture and execution of witches. Montague Summers wrote with the same Roman Catholic devotion books about vampires and werevolves: “The Vampire. His Kith and Kin.”, “The Vampire in Europe” and “The Werewolf”. He finally died in 1948.

 

Dr. Stephen Kaplan (1940-1995) was known as a popular author and radio commentator. As well, he was a notable paranormal investigator (Amityville Horror House hauntings), vampirologist and the founder of the Vampire Research Center in Elmhurst, NY. Kaplan has been counting vampires systematically since his first census in 1981. (This census including questionnaire reached Germany in 1982 [annotation by the article author]). There was a repetition in 1989. He sent questionnaires to people who contacted him claiming to be a vampire or know of one. Based on this census, Kaplan counted at least 50 true or real vampires in the U.S. and estimated that there were 300 or more in U.S. and 500 worldwide.

 

As well there are different theories about vampirism: Hormone, Fallen Angels, Atlantis, Alien.

 

Hormone Theory: According to this theory, the next step of human evolution is the vampire. A genetic complex inside the body but dormant get activated by a hormone brought in from an external source. The victims body is transformed by this hormone and the resulting vampire will be able to inject the hormone into another victim.

 

Fallen Angels Theory: This theory deriving from the Books of Enoch claims that vampires are the descendants of the relation between the Watchers (fallen Angels) and humans. The children of the Watchers devoured all food available and then turned to mankind to eat their flesh and drink their blood.

 

Atlantis Theory: The Atlantans have performed biological and genetic experiments. The result was a new human, a vampire, that could survive for centuries but had to drink the blood of humans to sustain his life.

 

Alien Vampire Theory: Many writings mention the probability of space aliens taking over a human body to live off the life force of humans. Those space aliens are some kind of parasites that control minds and draw vital energy.

 

(to be continued with Part III)